Islam is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur’an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God (Allah), and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (c. 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God. An adherent of Islam is called a Muslim.
Muslims believe that God is one and incomparable and that the purpose of existence is to worship God. Muslims also believe that Islam is the complete and universal version of a primordial faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Noah, Abraham, Moses, and Jesus. Although a large majority of Muslims do maintain that the previous messages and revelations have been partially misinterpreted over time, they are nevertheless all obliged, according to the Qur’an, to treat the older scriptures with the utmost respect. As for the Qur’an, Muslims consider it to be both the unaltered and the final revelation of God. Religious concepts and practices include the five pillars of Islam, which are basic concepts and obligatory acts of worship, and following Islamic law, which touches on virtually every aspect of life and society, providing guidance on multifarious topics from banking and welfare, to family life and the environment.
Al-Qur’an is the holy book of Muslims that Allah revealed to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Literally Qur’an means readings. But even overheard referring to a book, Muslims refer to the Qur’an itself more on the words or phrases in it, not in its physical form as a printout.
Muslims believe that the Qur’an delivered to Muhammad through the angel Gabriel. Own decline occurred gradually between the years 610 to 632 AD until his death Although the Qur’an more transferred through memorization, but in addition to many followers of Islam at the time of writing on the bones, stones and leaves.
Muslims believe that the Qur’an available today is exactly the same as those submitted to Muhammad, then presented again to his followers, who then memorized and wrote the contents of the Qur’an. In general, the scholars agreed that the version of the Qur’an that exists today was first compiled during the Caliphate of Uthman (the third Caliph of Islam), which ranges from 650 to 656 AD Uthman then send copies of this compilation version to the rest of the period of Muslim rule and ordered it destroyed all versions except for uniformity.
Al-Qur’an has 114 chapters, and a total of 6236 verses (there are differences depending on how the count). Almost all Muslims memorize at least some part of the whole Qur’an, those who memorize the entire Qur’an is known as hafiz (plural: huffaz). This is not something that is rare, it is believed that there are currently millions memorizers Al-Qur’an worldwide. In Indonesia there is a race Qur’an Reading Competition race to read the Qur’an with properly or good and true. Reciting called Qari (male) or Qariah (female).
Arabian Peninsula before the arrival of Islam is an area of trade crossing the Silk Road connecting Europe with Asia Indo east. Most of the Arabs were idol worshipers and there are some who are followers of religions of Christianity and Judaism. Mecca is a holy place for the Arabs at that time, because there are idols of their religion, Zamzam, and most importantly the Kaaba. The community is also called Ignorance or in another sense stupid. Stupid here but not in his intelligence in moral reasoning. Residents of Quraysh famous people who like poetry. They make the poem as one of the entertainment while gathered in crowded places.
Islam began in 611 when the first revelation to the last messenger, Muhammad bin Abdullah in the Cave of Hira ‘, Saudi Arabia. Muhammad was born in Mecca on 12 Rabi al-Awwal Year of the Elephant (571 BC). He was born in the middle of the Quraish in the time of ignorance, in the life of the desert tribes of warlike and idolatrous. Muhammad was born in an orphanage, because his father Abdullah died when he was still in the womb. By the time he was 6 years old, his mother Aminah died. Her mother’s absence, Muhammad was raised by his grandfather Abdul Muttalib, and continued by his uncle, Abu Talib. Muhammad then married a widow named Khadijah and live a simple life.
The vast area of the spread of Islam and the Caliphate rule breaking has begun since the 8th century, led to the emergence of separate powers of the authorities in the form of “empire”; for example, the Safavid Empire, the Turkish Seljuk Sultanate, the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Pasai Ocean and the Malacca Sultanate, which has become sultanates which has a strong power and world-renowned. Although it has a separate power, the sultanates nominally still respect and consider themselves part of the Islamic Caliphate.
In the 18th century and 19th century, many Islamic regions fell into the hands of European colonizers. Ottoman Empire (Ottoman Empire) which is nominally considered the last Islamic Caliphate, finally collapsed after World War I. Kingdom of the ottoman at the time was led by Sultan Muhammad V. Since it is considered equivocal by the youth of Turkey led by Mustafa Kemal Pasha or kemal Ataturk, the government reformed and changed into a republic.