Al-Qur’an is the holy book of Islam. Muslims believe that the Qur’an is the culmination of God’s revelation and provided cover for humans and the pillars of faith that was delivered to the Prophet Muhammad through the angel Gabriel; and the first revelation received by the Prophet Muhammad is as in Al-Qur’an Al-‘Alaq verses 1-5.
In terms of language, the Qur’an is derived from Arabic meaning “reading” or “something that is read repeatedly”. The word Qur’an is the noun form (masdar) from the verb meaning qara’a read. The concept of the use of this word can also be found in one of the letters of the Qur’an itself that in paragraph 17 and 18 al-qiyama which means:
“Indeed collecting the Qur’an (in the chest) and (establish) reading (on the tongue) that is dependent Us. (Therefore,) when We have recited it, let you follow the recitation”. (Al-Qiyamah 75: 17-18)
The Qur’an does not come down at once, the verses of the Qur’an down gradually for 22 years 2 months 22 days. The scholars divide the fall is divided into two periods, namely the period of Mecca and Medina period. Mecca period lasts for 12 years of the prophethood of the Prophet Muhammad and the letters down at this time belongs Makkiyyah letter. While Medina period commencing on the migration lasted for 10 years and a letter fell during the period referred to Madaniyah letter. Science Qur’an that discuss the background or reasons for one or several verses of the Qur’an was revealed called Asbabun Nuzul (Reasons for decrease (a verse).
Writing (recording in text form) verses of the Qur’an has been started since the time of the Prophet Muhammad. Then its transformation into text that have been bundled into one like that found today, it has been done in the time of Caliph Uthman.
Efforts to determine the content and purpose of the Qur’an has produced the translation process (literal) and interpretation (deeper, peel meanings) in different languages. However, its results are considered to be merely human effort and not attempt to duplicate or replace the original text in Arabic. Position the resulting translation and interpretation is not the same as the Qur’an itself.
In connection with the scriptures trusted revealed to prophets before Muhammad in Islam (Torah, Psalms, Gospel, chapter Ibrahim), Al-Qur’an in the verse hardened its position on these books. Here is the statement of the Qur’an which would be the doctrine of Muslims about the Qur’an relationship with these books:
That the Qur’an requires Muslims belief in the existence of these books.
That the Qur’an is positioned as a justification and touchstone (verifier) of the previous books.
That the Qur’an to be the reference for eliminating the disagreements between the human-beings of different messengers.
That the Qur’an straighten out history. In the Qur’an there are stories about the people of the apostles, as well as to some part of the life of the apostles. The story was different in several important aspects to the version on the other texts that is owned by Jews and Christians.